Outsider (Outside Agency)
In a stroke-play tournament, "Outside Agency" is any person or object other than the player and the opponent, their caddies, the balls used on the hole being played, and the equipment of both players.
In stroke play, an outsider is any person or object other than the player, any caddie of the player, the ball used by the player on the hole being played, and all player's equipment. Outsiders include umpires, scorekeepers, observers, and caddies. Neither wind nor water is an outsider.

A "partner" is a player on the same side as another player. In a three-player two-ball, four-player two-ball, best-ball, or four-ball tournament, the term "player" includes his partner, subject to the context.

Penalty Stroke
A "Penalty Stroke" is a stroke added to a player's or his side's score by the appropriate rule. Penalty strokes will not affect the order of play in a three-player two-ball or four-player two-ball match.

Provisional Ball
A "Provisional Ball" is a ball that may be lost outside the water hazard or may go out of bounds when played by Rule 27-2.

Putting Green
"The green in all areas of the hole being played is specially made for putting or other areas designated by the Committee as a green. When the ball touches any part on the green, the ball is located on that green.

Referee" means the person designated by the Committee to travel with the player to determine questions of fact and enforce the rules. He must act on all violations of the rules that he observes or is informed of.
The umpire shall not tend the flagstick, stand next to the ball stream, indicate the hole's location, pick up the ball, or mark the ball's position.

A rub of the Green
Accidental change of direction or stoppage by an outsider" means that the ball in motion is accidentally redirected or stopped by any outsider (see Rule 19-1).

Side" means one player or two or more (including two) players who are partners with each other.

See "Format of Match Play" and "Format of Stroke Play."

A player's "stance" is when they place their feet in the proper position for hitting or preparing to hit the ball.

Stipulated Round
A "regulation round" is the completion of the holes on the course in the correct order, unless otherwise specified by the Committee. The number of holes in a regulation round is 18, but the Committee may specify a smaller number of holes. Extension of the regulation round in the Kwan Chian Match Play.



Stroke" is the club's movement forward intending to hit the ball and move it, but if the player spontaneously stops or changes his swing before the clubhead touches the ball, he has not hit the ball.


Substituted Ball

Substituted Ball" is a ball that will be put into use when the initial ball is in use, lost, out of bounds, or picked up instead of the initial ball.




A "tee" is designed to hold the ball off the ground. It shall not exceed 4 inches (101. 6 mm) in length and shall not be designed and manufactured to indicate the line of play or affect the ball's movement.


Teeing Ground 

Teeing Ground" refers to the hole's beginning where the ball is being prepared for play. It is a rectangular area with a depth of two club-lengths, the front and sides defined by the outer edges of two tee markers. A ball is considered off the tee when its overall position is outside the tee box.



See "Hole Play Format."



See "Hole Play Format."


Through the Green

Through the Green" means all course areas except for the following

a. The hole is being played on the tee and green.

b. All hazard areas on the course.


Water Hazard

Water Hazard Area" means any sea, lake, pond, river, ditch, surface drainage, or other surface water, whether or not water is present therein, and other water of a similar nature on the course. All ground and water within the boundaries of a water hazard area are part of that water hazard area. When stakes to mark the boundary of the water barrier area, these stakes are located within that area. The boundary of that hazard area is determined by the point on the ground nearest the outside of these stakes. When marking water obstruction areas with both stakes and lines, the stakes serve as the identification mark for the obstacle zone, and the lines determine the boundary of the obstacle zone. When using a line on the ground to mark the boundary of the water obstacle area, the line itself is located in this water obstacle area. The boundary of the water obstacle zone extends vertically up and down.

When the ball is in the water obstacle zone, or any part of it touches the water obstacle zone, the ball is located in it—used to mark the water obstacle zone's boundary or identify the water obstacle zone stakes for obstruction.

Note 1: The stakes or lines used to mark the boundaries of the water obstruction area or to identify the water obstruction area must be yellow

Note 2: The Committee may establish local rules prohibiting play within environmentally sensitive areas marked as water hazard areas.



Wrong Ball 

A " Wrong ball " means any ball other than the player's own ball.

- A ball in use.

- A provisional ball.

- The second ball in a stroke-play match played under Rule 3-3 or 20-7c.

An errant ball includes.

- Balls of other players.

- Abandoned balls.

- The initial ball of a player who is not in use.

Note: A ball in use includes a replacement ball that replaces a ball in use, whether or not the rules allow for substitution.


Wrong Putting Green 

"Wrong green" means any green other than the green of the hole being played. Wrong greens include practice greens and chipping greens on the course, if not otherwise specified by the Committee.